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Giraffe Titan (Brachiosaurus) by Evometheus6082
Giraffe Titan (Brachiosaurus)

ame meaning

"Arm lizard"

Code name

Brach, Brachi, or Brachio

Diet

Herbivore

Height

9-11 meters (30-50 feet)

Length

27 meters (90 feet)

Weight

30 tons (60,000 lbs)

Range

North America
Africa 
Europe

Birth type

Egg

Habitat: Savanna woodlands and forest

Brachiosaurus is one of the most spectacular dinosaurs ever seen, or imagined.

It gets its name from the great height of its humerus, or upper arm bone - which is longer than most humans are tall! For almost a century, Brachiosaurus was considered the tallest of all dinosaurs. It was over 9 meters (30 feet) tall, and no other animal came close. Imagine going to the fifth floor of a building and looking down at the sidewalk. Now imagine your feet are at the street level and this is how tall you are! Today, however, there is a new contender for the title of tallest dinosaur. It is Sauroposeidon, named in 2000. Scientists believe it would stand 18 meters (60 feet) tall!

Originally discovered in 1900 in Colorado, Brachiosaurus was named in 1903 by Elmer Riggs of the Field Museum in Chicago. Brachiosaurus lived in both the United States and Africa (Tanzania) in the Jurassic. Scientists believe that Africa and North America were connected during the Jurassic.

New studies by computer specialists suggest that Brachiosaurus may not have carried its neck angle up as high as was thought once. It may have carried the neck more at a 45 - 60 degree angle. Although this changes its height, it does not change its length - or our wonder at this gigantic, graceful dinosaur.

Brachiosaurus /ˌbrækiəˈsɔːrəs/ is a genus ofsauropod dinosaur from the Jurassic Morrison Formation of North America. It was first described byElmer S. Riggs in 1903 from fossils found in the Grand River Canyon (now Colorado River) of western Colorado, in the United States. Riggs named the dinosaur Brachiosaurus altithorax, declaring it "the largest known dinosaur". Brachiosaurus had a disproportionately long neck, small skull, and large overall size, all of which are typical for sauropods. However, the proportions of Brachiosaurus are unlike most sauropods – the forelimbs were longer than the hindlimbs, which resulted in a steeply inclined trunk, and its tail was shorter in proportion to its neck than other sauropods of the Jurassic.

Brachiosaurus is the namesake genus of the familyBrachiosauridae, which includes a handful of other similar sauropods. Much of what is known by laypeople about Brachiosaurus is in fact based onGiraffatitan brancai, a species of brachiosaurid dinosaur from the Tendaguru Formation of Tanzaniathat was originally described by German paleontologist Werner Janensch as a species ofBrachiosaurus. Recent research shows that the differences between the type species ofBrachiosaurus and the Tendaguru material are significant enough that the African material should be placed in a separate genus. Several other potential species of Brachiosaurus have been described fromAfrica and Europe, but none of them are thought to belong to Brachiosaurus at this time.

Brachiosaurus is one of the rarer sauropods of the Morrison Formation. The type specimen of B. altithorax is still the most complete specimen, and only a relative handful of other specimens are thought to belong to the genus. It is regarded as a high browser, probably cropping or nipping vegetation as high as possibly 9 metres (30 ft) off of the ground. Unlike other sauropods, and its depiction in the film Jurassic Park, it was unsuited for rearing on its hindlimbs. It has been used as an example of a dinosaur that was most likely ectothermic because of its large size and the corresponding need for forage, but more recent research finds it to have been warm-blooded.

Description


Like all sauropod dinosaurs,Brachiosaurus was a quadrupedal animal with a small skull, a long neck, a large trunk with a high-ellipsoid cross section, a long, muscular tail and slender, columnar limbs. The skull had a robust, wide muzzle and thick jaw bones, with spoon–shaped teeth. As in Giraffatitan, there was an arch of bone over the snout and in front of the eyes that encircled the nasal opening, although this arch was not as large as in its relative.
Large air sacs connected to the lung system were present in the neck and trunk, invading the vertebrae and ribs, greatly reducing the overall density. Unusually for a sauropod, the forelimbs were longer than the hind limbs. The humerus (upper arm bone) of Brachiosaurus was relatively lightly built for its size, measuring 2.04 meters (6.7 ft) in length in the type specimen. The femur (thigh bone) of the type specimen was only 2.03 meters (6.7 ft) long. Unlike other sauropods, Brachiosaurus appears to have been slightly sprawled at the shoulder joint, and the rib-cage was unusually deep. This led to the trunk being inclined, with the front much higher than the hips, and the neck exiting the trunk at a steep angle. Overall, this shape resembles a giraffe more than any other living animal.

Size

Because "Brachiosaurus" brancai (Giraffatitan) is known from much more complete material than B. altithorax, most size estimates for Brachiosaurus are actually for the African form. There is an additional element of uncertainty for North American Brachiosaurusbecause the most complete skeleton appears to have come from a sub-adult. Over the years, the mass of B. altithorax has been estimated as 35.0 metric tons (38.6 short tons),[7] 43.9 metric tons (48.4 short tons), 28.7 metric tons (31.6 short tons) and, most recently, 56.3 metric tons (62.1 short tons). In cases when the authors also provided estimates for Giraffatitan, and found that genus to be somewhat lighter (31.5 metric tons (34.7 short tons) for Paul [1988], 39.5 metric tons (43.5 short tons) for Mazzetta et al [2004], 23.3 metric tons (25.7 short tons) for Taylor [2009], and 34 metric tons (37 short tons) for Benson et al [2014]).The length of Brachiosaurus has been estimated at 26 meters (85 ft).

Classification

Brachiosaurus is the namesake genus of Brachiosauridae.  Over the years, a number of sauropods have been assigned to Brachiosauridae, such as AstrodonBothriospondylusDinodocus,PelorosaurusPleurocoelus, and Ultrasaurus,[13] but most of these are currently regarded as dubious or of uncertain placement.[1] A phylogenetic analysis of sauropods published in the description ofAbydosaurus found that genus to form a clade withBrachiosaurus and Giraffatitan (included inBrachiosaurus). A more recent analysis focused on possible Asian brachiosaurid material found a clade including AbydosaurusBrachiosaurus,CedarosaurusGiraffatitan, and Paluxysaurus, but not Qiaowanlong, the putative Asian brachiosaurid.[15]Related genera include Lusotitan andSauroposeidon. Brachiosauridae is situated at the base of Titanosauriformes, a group of sauropods that also includes the titanosaurs.

According to the revised diagnosis by Taylor, Brachiosaurus altithorax is diagnosed by a plethora of characters, many to be found on the dorsal (back) vertebrae. Among the characters placing it in the family Brachiosauridae are a ratio of humerus length to femur length of at least 0.9 (i.e. the upper arm bone is at least nearly as long as the thigh bone), and a very flattened femur shaft (ratio ≥1.85).

Discovery and history


The genus Brachiosaurus, and type species B. altithorax, are based on a partial post-cranial skeleton from Fruita, in the valley of the Colorado River of western Colorado. This specimen was collected from rocks of the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation  in 1900 by Elmer S. Riggs and his crew from the Field Columbian Museum (now the Field Museum of Natural History) of Chicago. It is currently cataloged as FMNH P 25107. Riggs and company were working in the area as a result of favorable correspondence between Riggs and S. M. Bradbury, a dentist in nearby Grand Junction. In 1899, Riggs had sent inquiries to rural locations in the western United States concerning fossil finds, and Bradbury, an amateur collector himself, reported that dinosaur bones had been collected in the area since 1885. It was Riggs' field assistant H. W. Menke who found FMNH P 25107, on July 4, 1900. The locality, Riggs Quarry 13, was found on a small hill later known as Riggs Hill; it is marked by a plaque. Additional Brachiosaurus fossils are reported on Riggs Hill, but other fossil finds on the hill have been vandalized. Riggs published a short report in 1901, noting the unusual length of the humerus compared to the femur and the extreme overall size and the resulting giraffe-like proportions, as well as the lesser development of the tail, but did not publish a name for the new dinosaur. The titles of Riggs (1901) and (1903) suggested that the specimen was the largest known dinosaur. Riggs followed his 1903 publication that named Brachiosaurus altithorax with a more detailed description in a monograph in 1904. Riggs derived the genus name from the Greek brachion/βραχιων meaning "arm" and sauros/σαυρος meaning "lizard", because he realized that the length of the arms was unusual for a sauropod. The species epithet "altithorax" was chosen because of the unusually deep and wide chest cavity, from Latin altus meaning "deep" and Greek thorax/θώραξ (Latin thorax), meaning "breastplate, cuirass, corslet".

The Fruita skeleton was not the first discovery ofBrachiosaurus bones, although it was the first to be recognized as belonging to a new and distinct animal. In 1883, a sauropod skull was found near Garden Park, Colorado, at Felch Quarry 1, and was sent to Othniel Charles Marsh (of "Bone Wars" fame). Marsh incorporated the skull into his skeletal restoration of "Brontosaurus" (now Apatosaurus). It eventually became part of the collections of the National Museum of Natural History, as USNM 5730. In the 1970s, when Jack McIntosh and David Berman were working on the issue of the true skull of Apatosaurus, they reevaluated the Garden Park skull as more similar to Camarasaurus. It was described and recognized as a Brachiosaurus skull in 1998 byKenneth Carpenter and Virginia Tidwell, intermediate in form between Camarasaurus and Giraffatitan brancai (then still considered to be B. brancai). Because there are no overlapping parts between this skull and FMNH P 25107, it cannot be confidently assigned to a species, so it is classified as Brachiosaurus sp.

Preparation of P 25107, the holotype of Brachiosaurus, began in the fall of 1900 shortly after it was collected by Elmer Riggs for the Field Museum of Natural History (Chicago). As the preparation of each bone was finished, it was put on display in a glass case in Hall 35 of the Fine Arts Palace of the Worlds Columbian Exposition, Field Museum's first home. All the bones were on display by 1908 when Field Museum's newly mounted Apatosaurus was unveiled. However, no mount was attempted because only 20% of the skeleton had been recovered. In 1993, the holotype bones were molded and cast, and the missing bones were sculpted based on Giraffatitan material in Berlin. This plastic skeleton was mounted and, in 1994, put on display at the north end of Stanley Field Hall, the main exhibit hall of the Field Museum's current building. The real bones of the holotype were put on exhibit in two large glass cases at either end of the mounted cast. The mount stood until 1999, when it was moved to the B Concourse of United Airlines' Terminal One in O'Hare International Airport to make room for the museum's newly acquired T. rex, "SUE". At the same time, the Field Museum mounted a second plastic cast of the skeleton (designed for outside use) and it has been on display outside the museum on the NW terrace ever since. The only real bones currently on display are the humerus and two dorsals in the Mesozoic Hall of the Field Museum's Evolving Planet exhibit.

Additional discoveries ofBrachiosaurus material in North America have been uncommon and consist of a handful of bones. Material has been described from Colorado, Oklahoma, Utah, and Wyoming, and un-described material has been mentioned from several other sites. One of these specimens, a shoulder blade from Dry Mesa Quarry, Colorado, is one of the specimens at the center of the Supersaurus/Ultrasauros issue of the 1980s and 1990s. In 1985, James A. Jensendescribed disarticulated sauropod remains from the quarry as belonging to several taxa, including the new genera Supersaurus and Ultrasaurus, the latter renamed Ultrasauros shortly thereafter because another sauropod already had the name.[33]Later study showed that the "ultrasaur" material mostly belonged to Supersaurus, although the shoulder blade did not. Because the holotype ofUltrasauros, a back vertebra, was one of the specimens that was actually from Supersaurus, the name Ultrasauros is a synonym of Supersaurus. The shoulder blade is now assigned to Brachiosaurus, but the species is uncertain. In addition, the Dry Mesa "ultrasaur" was not as large as had been thought; the dimensions of the shoulder's coracoidbone indicate that the animal was smaller than Riggs' original specimen of Brachiosaurus.

Paleo-ecology

With the removal of the East African Giraffatitan,Brachiosaurus is known only from the Morrison Formation of western North America. The Morrison Formation is interpreted as a semiarid environment with distinct wet and dry seasons, and flat floodplains. Vegetation varied from gallery forests(river–lining forests in otherwise treeless settings) of coniferstree ferns, and ferns, to fern savannas with rare Araucaria-like trees. Several other sauropod genera were present in the Morrison Formation, with differing body proportions and feeding adaptations. Among these were ApatosaurusBarosaurus,CamarasaurusDiplodocusHaplocanthosaurus, andSupersaurus. Brachiosaurus was one of the less abundant Morrison Formation sauropods. In a survey of over 200 fossil localities, John Foster reported 12 specimens of the genus, comparable to Barosaurus(13) and Haplocanthosaurus (12), but far fewer thanApatosaurus (112), Camarasaurus (179), and Diplodocus (98). Brachiosaurus fossils are found only in the lower-middle part of the expansive Morrison Formation (stratigraphic zones 2-4), dated to about 154-153 million years ago, unlike many other types of sauropod which have been found throughout the formation.

Paleo-biology

Neck position


In contrast to most other sauropods, brachiosaurids had an inclined back, d their long forelimbs. Therefore, if the neck exited the body in a straight line, it already pointed upwards.

The exact angle is influenced by how the pectoral girdle is reconstructed, that is how the shoulder blades are placed on the rib-cage. The mobility of the neck was reconstructed as quite low by Stevens and Parrish, while other researchers like Paul and Christian and Dzemski argued for more flexible necks.

Feeding ecology

Brachiosaurus is thought to have been a high-browser, feeding on foliage well above the ground. Even if it did not hold its neck near vertical, and instead had a straighter neck, its head height may still have been over 9 meters (30 ft) above the ground. It probably fed mostly on foliage above 5 meters (16 ft). This does not preclude the possibility that it also fed lower at times, between 3 to 5 meters (9.8 to 16.4 ft) up. Its diet likely consisted of ginkgos, conifers, tree ferns, and large cycads, with intake estimated at 200 to 400 kilograms (440 to 880 lb) of plant matter daily. However, more recent studies estimate that ~240 kilograms (530 lb) of plant matter would have been sufficient to feed a 70 metric tons (77 short tons) sauropod, so Brachiosaurus may have required only about 120 kilograms (260 lb) of fodder a day. Brachiosaur feeding involved simple up–and–down jaw motion. The teeth were arranged to shear material as they closed, and were probably used to crop and/or nip vegetation.

It has repeatedly been suggested, e.g. in the movieJurassic Park, that Brachiosaurus could rear into a bipedal or tripodal (with tail support) pose to feed.[7]However, a detailed physical modelling-based analysis of sauropod rearing capabilities by Heinrich Mallison showed that while many sauropods could rear, the unusual brachiosaurid body shape and limb length ratio made them exceptionally ill suited for rearing. The forward position of the center of mass would have led to problems with stability, and required unreasonably large forces in the hips to obtain an upright posture. Brachiosaurus would also have gained relatively little from rearing (only 33% more feeding height), compared to other sauropods, for which a bipedal pose may have tripled the feeding height.[58]

Metabolism

Like all sauropods, Brachiosaurus was homeothermic(maintaining a stable internal temperature) and endothermic (controlling body temperature through internal means), meaning that it was able to actively control its body temperature ("warm-blooded"), producing the necessary heat through a high basic metabolic rate of its cells. In the past, Brachiosaurus has been used an example of a dinosaur for which endothermy is unlikely, because of the combination of great size (leading to overheating) and great caloric needs to fuel endothermy. However, these calculations were based on incorrect assumptions about the available cooling surfaces (the large air sacs were not known), and a grossly inflated body mass. These inaccuracies resulted in the overestimation of heat production and the underestimation of heat loss. The large nasal arch has been postulated as an adaptation for cooling the brain, as a surface for evaporative cooling of the blood.

In culture

Brachiosaurus is one of the best-known dinosaurs among-st both paleontologists and the general public. A main belt asteroid1991 GX7, has been named 9954 Brachiosaurus in honor of the genus. The genus has been featured in many films and television programs, most notably the Jurassic Park and Walking with Dinosaurs series. The digital model of Brachiosaurus used in Jurassic Park went on to become the starting point for the ronto models in the 1997 special edition of the science fiction film Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope.

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Cheetah by Evometheus6082
Cheetah

The cheetah’s habitat is now
only 25% of its former size

Cheetah

CONSERVATION STATUS:

Vulnerable

  • Population has decreased30%over the last 18 years
  • Only7,500adults remain in the wild
  • Approximately50 to 75%of cubs die within months

QUICK FACTS

Scientific name: Acinonyx jubatus

Weight:110 to 140 lb.

Size: 30 in. at the shoulder

Lifespan: 10 to 20 years

Habitat:Open plains

Diet: Carnivorous

Gestation: 90 to 95 days

Predators: Eagles, humans, hyenas, lions

Where do cheetahs live?

The cheetah's habitat has been reduced by 76%, and they occur widely but sparsely in the regions they still inhabit. Southern and Eastern Africa are strongholds for cheetah populations.

Tags: BeninBurkina FasoKenyaMozambiqueNamibiaNigerSouth AfricaTanzaniaZambia,ZimbabweKazungulaKilimanjaroLimpopoZambeziEast AfricaSouthern Africa

What do cheetahs look like?

Cheetahs have long, slim, muscular legs; a small, rounded head set on a long neck; a flexible spine; a deep chest; special pads on its feet for traction; and a long tail for balance. It is also the only cat that cannot retract its claws, an adaptation to help maintain traction like a soccer player’s cleats. It also bears distinctive black "tear tracks" running from the inside corner of each eye to the mouth, which may serve as an anti-glare mechanism for daytime hunting.

The cheetah is a fast but timid predator.

Cheetahs usually prey on small antelopes such as Thomson's gazelles and impalas, but they also hunt small mammals and birds. The cheetah gets as close to the prey as possible, then in a burst of speed, it tries to outrun its quarry. Once the cheetah closes in, it knocks the prey to the ground with its paw and suffocates the animal with a bite to the neck. Once a cheetah has made a kill, it eats quickly and keeps an eye out for scavengers—lions, leopards, hyenas, vultures, and jackals will steal from this timid predator.

Cheetahs are a little introverted.

The cheetah is basically a solitary animal. At times, a male will accompany a female for a short while after mating, but most often, the female is alone or with her cubs. Cheetah mothers spend a long time teaching their young how to hunt. Small, live antelopes are brought back to the cubs so they can learn to chase and catch them.

Challenges

Human-wildlife conflict threatens cheetah survival.

Cheetahs tend to encounter conflict with farmers when loss of their natural prey leads them to attack livestock, and farmers kill them, as pests, in retaliation.

Habitat loss also presents a major threat to cheetahs.

As human populations grow and expand, agriculture, roads, and settlements destroy the open grasslands that cheetahs favor.

Solutions

Our solutions to conserving the cheetah:

  • Work with communities.

    We engage communities living near cheetahs to create sustainable solutions for agricultural and settlement growth by providing incentives and training on best practices. This allows for both cheetahs and farmers to have space in which to live without encroaching on one another.

  • Minimize human-wildlife conflict.

    African Wildlife Foundation provides both proactive and reactive strategies to prevent human-wildlife conflict. We work with local communities to construct bomas—enclosures for livestock that protect them from cheetahs. We also provide consolation funding to farmers who have lost livestock to cheetah predation. This allows farmers to replace lost livestock, with the assurance that they will not retaliate against cheetahs.

Projects

Will you show cheetahs your support?

With your help, AWF can work on critical projects like sustainable agriculture solutions and boma construction that benefit both communities and vulnerable species. Donate for a cause that will help with wildlife conservation and ensure the cheetah does not become an endangered species.  

Reason #53 to get involved

With loss of habitat and prey, carnivores—like cheetahs and wild dogs—are hunting community livestock. As a result, farmers are forced to kill these species. African Wildlife Foundation needs support training scouts and funding bomas to protect livestock as well as negotiating buffer zones for wildlife.

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Japanese Rhino Beatle (Heracross) by Evometheus6082
Japanese Rhino Beatle (Heracross)
This one is based on the Heracross Pokemon

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Coleoptera
Family: Scarabaeidae
Subfamily: Dynastinae
Genus: Allomyrina
SpeciesAllomyrina dichotoma

The Japanese rhinoceros beetle (Allomyrina dichotoma), Japanese horned beetle, or kabutomushi (カブトムシ) is a species of rhinoceros beetle found in Japan, Korea, Taiwan and China.

Size: 35 - 70 mm

Characteristics
The Japanese rhinoceros beetle is so named for the large horn that protrudes upwards from the front of the beetle's head. The beetles have a thick brown shell and are just over 2 inches in length. The horn has two components. The first is a shorter horn on the top of the head and the second is a larger and longer horn that emerges from the front of the beetle's head just like a rhino's horn.

Diet
Because these beetles are often kept as pets, it is important to know what they look upon as food sources. Rotten wood is the preferred food of most species of rhino beetle, including the Japanese rhino beetle. In the wild, the beetles make their homes in forests where rotten wood is in abundance, but captive ones need to be provided food in order to live. These beetles also enjoy fruit and liquids with sugar in them.

Life cycle
The Japanese rhinoceros beetle is not a particularly long-lived animal. One of the reasons that they are raised in captivity and sold as pets is so that children get them as young as possible. Longer lived variety of beetles are sometimes gathered from the wild instead. On average, a Japanese rhinoceros beetle lives for around one year.

Behavior
While beloved as pets by children, the beetles aren't as admired by adults in the countries where they are a pest. Because of their fondness for sugar and the wood of trees, they can be quite damaging to the garden. The bugs are active at night and tend to move towards lit areas during the hours of darkness. Japanese rhinoceros beetles are a very popular subject in gambling, like Siamese fighting fish and cricket fights. In the most popular game, two different male beetles are placed on a log. They will battle each other, trying to push each other off the log, the one to stay on the log is the winner. This is a huge source and loss of money to many 
people, especially in the Ryukyu Islands.

How the Rhinoceros Beetle Got Its Horns

Sporting a horn on your head two-thirds the length of your body might seem like a drag. For the rhinoceros beetle, though, massive head-weapons are no big deal.

Turns out, pitchfork-shaped protrusions on the heads of rhinoceros beetles don't slow them down during flight, new research shows. The findings may explain why the beetles' horns are so diverse and elaborate, said study researcher Erin McCullough, a doctoral student at the University of Montana.

"Because the horns don't impair the beetles' ability to fly, they might be unconstrained by natural selection," McCullough told LiveScience, referring to the evolutionary process that weeds out weak traits while passing on advantageous ones.

Diverse weapons

The finding would clear up a rhinoceros beetle mystery. Male rhinoceros beetles (there are more than 300 species) are known for their huge horns, some of which can exceed the length of the rest of the beetle's body. The males use these horns, which come in an array of shapes, to battle each other for supremacy of sap-leaking sites on trees. Females are drawn to these sites to feed, and males perched there are more successful at mating with those females. 

"Rhinoceros beetles are just fantastic creatures," McCullough said. "They have the most elaborate weapons that we find really in almost any animal."

McCullough and her colleagues expected those weapons came at a cost. Flashy body parts often do; in fact, scientists theorize that wild feathers or other elaborate mate-attracting devices send a signal that says, "Mate with me! I'm so healthy I can support a totally useless appendage!"

To evaluate the cost of the beetles' horns, McCullough tested Asian rhinoceros beetles (Trypoxlus dichotomus), which have horns about two-thirds as long as their bodies. After euthanizing the beetles, she weighed them with and without their horns. She also determined the center of mass of the beetles with and without their horns. Finally, she tested the beetle bodies in a wind tunnel to see how the horns affected the drag on the beetles' bodies and thus the force they'd need for flight.

Beetle surprise

What she found surprised her. The beetle horns weren't a drag at all.

The horns turned out to be very dry and hollow, McCullough said. They comprised only 0.5 percent to 2.5 percent of body weight. Because of their low mass, they hardly affected the beetles' center of mass. Cutting off a male's horn moved his center of mass only about 1.7 percent.

And in flight, the horns made no difference at all. The beetles fly slowly with their bodies in a near-vertical position, McCullough found. At this angle, even a huge horn adds almost no drag. The researchers report their findings today (March 12) in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

"This is not what I was expecting, but it's actually a nice simple explanation for my big interest in why we see so much diversity in these horns," McCullough said. Without much of a cost to the beetle's survival, evolution is essentially free to experiment with weird and wild horn shapes.

"There's a big benefit to having these horns, but I haven't found any evidence for any cost," she said.

www.livescience.com/27851-rhin…
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Lernean Hydra GFBPUR by Evometheus6082
Lernean Hydra GFBPUR
Greek Name      Transliteration.     Latin Spelling    
Ὑδρα Λερναια   Hydra Lernaia      Hydra Lernaea    
Translation
Lerna Water-Serpent


HYDRA LERNAIA was a gigantic, nine-headed water-serpent, which haunted the swamps of Lerna. Herakles was sent to destroy her as one of his twelve labours, but for each of her heads that he decapitated, two more sprang forth. So with the help of Iolaos, he applied burning brands to the severed stumps, cauterizing the wounds and preventing regeneration. In the battle he also crushed a giant crab beneath his heel which had come to assist Hydra. The Hydra and the Crab were afterwards placed amongst the stars by Hera as the Constellations Hydra and Cancer.
PARENTS
[1.1] TYPHOEUS & EKHIDNA (Hesiod Theogony 313, Hyginus Pref & Fab 30 & 151)
[1.2] EKHIDNA (Ovid Metamorphoses 9.69)

ENCYCLOPEDIA

HYDRA. This monster, like the lion, was the offspring of Typhon and Echidna, and was brought up by Hera. It ravaged the country of Lernae near Argos, and dwelt in a swamp near the well of Amymone: it was formidable by its nine heads, the middle of which was immortal. Heracles, with burning arrows, hunted up the monster, and with his club or a sickle he cut off its heads; but in the place of the head he cut off, two new ones grew forth each time, and a gigantic crab came to the assistance of the hydra, and wounded Heracles. However, with the assistance of his faithful servant Iolaus, he burned away the heads of the hydra, and buried the ninth or immortal one under a huge rock. Having thus conquered the monster, he poisoned his arrows with its bile, whence the wounds inflicted by them became incurable. Eurystheus declared the victory unlawful, as Heracles had won it with the aid of Iolaus. (Hes. Theog. 313, &c.; Apollod. ii. 5. § 2; Diod. iv. 11; Eurip. Herc. Fur. 419, 1188, Ion, 192; Ov. Met. ix. 70; Virg. Aen. viii. 300; Paus. ii. 36. § 6, 37. § 4, v. 5. § 5; Hygin. Fab. 30.)
Source: Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.



HYDRA SECOND LABOUR OF HERACLES

Hesiod, Theogony 313 ff (trans. Evelyn-White) (Greek epic C8th or 7th B.C.) :
"And third again she [Ekhidna] bore the grisly-minded Lernaian Hydra, whom the goddess white-armed Hera nourished because of her quenchless grudge against the strong Herakles. Yet he, Herakles, son of Zeus, of the line of Amphitryon, by design of Athene the spoiler and with help form warlike Iolaos, killed this beast with the pitiless bronze sword."
Alcaeus, Fragment 443 (from Schoiast on Hesiod's Theogony) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (Greek lyric C6th B.C.) :
"The Hydra is called nine-headed by Alcaeus, fifty-headed by Simonides."
Simonides, Fragment 569 (from Servius on Virgil's Aeneid) (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric II) (Greek lyric C6th to 5th B.C.) :
"One hundred snakes as in Simonides, as we said above [he spoke of Simonides fifty-headed Hydra]; others say there were nine."
Aeschylus, Fragment 55 Leon (from Stephen of Byzantium, Lexicon 699. 13) (trans. Weir Smyth) (Greek tragedy C5th B.C.) :
"The bane of wayfarers, the drakon (serpent) that haunts the place." [N.B. Perhaps a reference to the Hydra of Lerna.]
Plato, Euthydemus 297c (trans. Lamb) (Greek philosopher C4th B.C.) :
"[Plato uses the myth of the Hydra as a metaphor for argument :] Herakles, who was no match for the Hydra . . . who was so clever that she sent forth many heads . . . in place of each one that was cut off; . . . [and a] crab . . . from the sea--freshly, I fancy, arrived on shore; and, when the hero was so bothered with its leftward barks and bites, he summoned his nephew Iolaus to the rescue, and he brought him effective relief."
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 77 - 80 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"For his second labour Herakles was instructed to slay the Lernaian Hydra. The beast was nurtured in the marshes of Lerna, from where she would go out onto the flatland to raid flocks and ruin the land. The Hydra was of enormous size, with eight mortal heads, and a ninth one in the middle that was immortal. With Iolaos driving, Herakles rode a chariot to Lerna, and there, stopping the horses, he found the Hydra on a ridge beside the springs of Amymone where she nested. By throwing flaming spears at her he forced her to emerge, and as she did he was able to catch hold. But she hung on to him by wrapping herself round one of his feet, and he was unable to help matters by striking her with his club, for as soon as one head was pounded off two others would grow in its place. Then a giant crab came along to help the Hydra, and bit Herakles on the foot. For this he killed the crab, and called on his own behalf to Iolaos for help. Iolaos made some torches by setting fire to a portion of the adjoining woods, and, by using these to burn the buddings of the heads, he kept them from growing. When he had overcome this problem, Herakles lopped off the immortal head, which he buried and covered with a heavy boulder at the side of the road that runs through Lerna to Elaios. He cut up the Hydra's body and dipped his arrows in its venom."
Strabo, Geography 8. 6. 2 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"The river Lerna, as it is called, bearing the same name as the marsh in which is laid the scene of the myth of the Hydra."
Strabo, Geography 8. 6. 6 :
"Lake Lerna, the scene of the story of the Hydra, lies in Argeia and the Mykenean territory."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 2. 37. 4 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
”At the source of the Amymone [near Lerna, Argolis] grows a plane tree, beneath which, they say, the Hydra (Water-snake) grew. I am ready to believe that this beast was superior in size to other water-snakes, and that its poison had something in it so deadly that Herakles treated the points of his arrows with its gall. It had, however, in my opinion, one head and not several. It was Peisander of Kamiros who, in order that the beat might appear more frightful and his poetry might be more remarkable, represented the Hydra with its many heads."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 3. 18. 10 - 16 :
"[Amongst the illustrations on the throne of the statue of Apollon at Amyklai near Sparta :] On the left stand Ekhidna and Typhos, on the right Tritones . . . Next to these have been wrought two of the exploits of Herakles--his slaying of the Hydra, and his bringing up the Hound of Hell (kuna ton Haidou)."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 17. 11 :
"[Amongst the illustrations on the chest of Kypselos dedicated at Olympia :] Heracles, with Athena standing beside him, is shooting at the Hydra, the beast in the river Amymone."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 26. 7 :
"By the smaller offerings of Mikythos [at Olympia] . . . are some of the exploits of Herakles, including what he did to the Nemeian Lion (Leonta Nemea), the Hydra, the Hound of Hell , and the boar by the river Erymanthos."
Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 4. 11. 5 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) :
"The second Labour which he [Herakles] undertook was the slaying of the Lernaian Hydra, springing from whose single body were fashioned a hundred necks, each bearing the head of a serpent. And when one head was cut off, the place where it was severed put forth two others; for this reason it was considered to be invincible, and with good reason, since the part of it which was subdued sent forth a two-fold assistance in its place. Against a thing so difficult to manage as this Herakles devised an ingenious scheme and commanded Iolaos to sear with a burning brand the part which had been severed, in order to check the flow of the blood. So when he had subdued the animal by this means he dipped the heads of his arrows in the venom, in order that when the missile should be shot the wound which the point made might be incurable."
Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 6. 212 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) :
"Thereby was wrought [on the shield of Eurypylos, a son of Herakles] the Hydra many-necked flickering its dread tongues. Of its fearful heads some severed lay on earth, but many more were budding from its necks, while Herakles and Iolaos, dauntless-hearted twain, toiled hard; the one with lightning sickle-sweeps lopped the fierce heads, his fellow seared each neck With glowing iron; the monster so was slain."
Aelian, On Animals 9. 23 (trans. Scholfield) (Greek natural history C2nd A.D.) :
"Hekataios the chronicler [Greek C4th B.C.], may sing, of the Hydra of Lerna, one of the Labours of Herakles." - Aelian, On Animals 9.23
Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History Book 2 (summary from Photius, Myriobiblon 190) (trans. Pearse) (Greek mythographer C1st to C2nd A.D.) :
"Aristonikos of Tarenton says that the middle head of the Hydra was of gold."
Pseudo-Hyginus, Preface (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"From Typhon and Echidna [was born] : . . . Hydra serpent which had nine heads which Hercules killed, and Draco Hesperidum."
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 30 :
"He [Herakles] killed at the spring of Lerna the nine headed Lernaean Hydra, offspring of Typhon. This monster was so poisonous that she killed men with her breath, and if anyone passed by when she was sleeping, he breathed her tracks and died in greatest torment. Under Minerva’s [Athene’s] instructions he killed her, disembowelled her, and dipped his arrows in her gall; and so whatever later he hit with his arrows did not escape death, and later he himself perished in Phrygia from the same cause."
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 151 :
"From Typhon the giant and Echidna were born . . . the Hydra which Hercules killed by the spring of Lerna."
Pseudo-Hyginus, Astronomica 2. 23 :
"The Crab is said to have been put among the stars by the favour of Juno [Hera], because, when Hercules had stood firm against the Lernaean Hydra, it had snapped at his foot from the swamp. Hercules, enraged at this, had killed it, and Juno [Hera] put it among the constellations."
Ovid, Metamorphoses 9. 69 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"[Herakles addresses the shape-shifting river-god Akhelous :] `Mastering Dracones is child’s play, Achelous! Yes, if you were champion serpent, how could you compare with Echidna Lernaea [Hydra], you a single snake? It throve on wounds: of all its hundred heads I cut off one but from its neck two more sprang to succeed it, stronger than before! Yes, though it branched with serpents sprung from death, and multiplied on doom, I mastered it, and, mastered, I dispatched it.'"
Ovid, Metamorphoses 9. 192 ff :
"The Hydra’s gain from loss, with doubled strength, was all in vain [i.e. against the might of Herakles]."
Ovid, Heroides 9. 87 ff (trans. Showerman) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"[Herakles] told of the deeds . . . The fertile serpent that sprang forth again from the fruitful wound, grown rich from her own hurt."
Virgil, Aeneid 6. 803 ff (trans. Day-Lewis) (Roman epic C1st B.C.) :
"[Herakles] subdued Lerana with the terror of his bow."
Seneca, Hercules Furens 220 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) :
"[The infant Herakles killed two serpents] crushing their swollen throats with his baby hands, he practised for the Hydra."
Seneca, Hercules Furens 241 ff :
"[The labours of Herakles :] Lerna’s fell monster, pest manifold, did he not quell at last by fire and teach to die?"
Seneca, Hercules Furens 526 ff :
"Let Alcmena’s son [Herakles] in endless wars employ on monsters the hand that bore the heavens; let him cut off the Hydra’s teeming necks.”
Seneca, Medea 700 ff :
"[The witch Medea summons poisonous serpents with a spell invoking the names of the great Drakones :] `In answer to my incantations let Python come . . . Let Hydra return and every serpent cut off by the hand of Hercules, restoring itself by its own destruction. Thou, too, ever-watchful dragon [of the Golden Fleece].'"
Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 7. 623 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) :
"The Tirynthian [Herakles] wearied in fight against the Hydra’s dreadful hosts turned to the fires of Pallas [Athene who suggested to the hero this means of destroying the creature]."
Statius, Thebaid 2. 375 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) :
"The marsh of Lerna and the burnt Hydra’s heat makes warm the depths of those unrighteous waters."
Statius, Thebaid 4. 168 ff :
"There lies the Hydra [on the shield of the Argive warrior Kapaneus] with triple-branching crown, lately slain and foul in death: part, embossed in silver, glitters fierce with moving snakes, part by a cunning device is sunken, and grows dark in death agony against the tawny gold; around, in dark-blue steel runs the torpid stream of Lerna."
Nonnus, Dionysiaca 25. 196 ff (trans. Rouse) (Greek epic C5th A.D.) :
"[Herakles] took all that trouble to liberate some little snaky brook like Lerna, by cutting down the selfgrowing firstfruits of the lurking serpent, as that plentiful crop of snakeheads grew spiking up. If only he had done the killing alone! Instead of calling in his distress for Iolaos, to destroy the heads as they grew afresh, by lifting a burning torch; until the two together managed to get the better of one female serpent . . . cutting down a bush of heads which ever grew again on so many necks."
Suidas s.v. Hydran temnein (trans. Suda On Line) (Byzantine Greek Lexicon C10th A.D.) :
"Hydran temnein (you are cutting off a hydra) : Said of things that are hopeless; for the story goes that when Herakles was fighting a Hydra in Lerna which had a hundred heads, and as the heads were cut off more grew, he ordered Iolaos to burn the cut ones."

ARROWS OF HERACLES COATED WITH THE HYDRA'S VENOM
Alcman, Fragment 815 Geryoneis (trans. Campbell, Vol. Greek Lyric III) (Greek lyric C7th B.C.) :
"[Herakles arrow] (Bringing) the end that is hateful (death), having (doom) on its head, befouled with blood and with . . [lacuna] gall, the anguish of the dapple-necked Hydra, destroyer of men [Herakles used an arrow poisoned with the blood and gall of the Hydra]; and Geryon drooped his neck to one side"
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 80 (trans. Aldrich) (Greek mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"He [Herakles] cut up the Hydra's body and dipped his arrows in its venom."
Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 2. 157 :
"In fear lest Herakles desire Iole more than herself [Deianeira], and in her belief that the blood of Nessos [who was slain by Herakles with an arrow poisoned with Hydra's blood] was truly a love-potion, she doused the robe with it. Herakles put it on and started the sacrifice, but soon the robe grew warm as the Hydra’s venom began to cook his flesh. He caught up Likhas by the foot and hurled him into the Euboian sea, then tore off the robe, which stuck to his body so that he ripped off his flesh along with hit."
Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 4. 1390 ff (trans. Rieu) (Greek epic C3rd B.C.) :
"The snake [the Drakon of the Hesperides], struck down by Herakles, lay by the trunk of the apple-tree. Only the tip of his tail was still twitching; from the head down, his dark spine showed not a sign of life. His blood had been poisoned by arrows steeped in the gall of the Lernaean Hydra, and flies perished in the festering wounds."
Strabo, Geography 8. 3. 19 (trans. Jones) (Greek geographer C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"It [the Anigros River of Elis] emits an offensive odor for a distance of twenty stadia, and makes the fish unfit to eat. In the mythical accounts, however, this is attributed by some writers to the fact that certain of the Kentauroi here washed off the poison they got from the Hydra [after their battle with Herakles] . . . The bathing-water from here cures leprosy, elephantiasis, and scabies."
Pausanias, Description of Greece 5. 5. 9 (trans. Jones) (Greek travelogue C2nd A.D.) :
"Some Greeks say that Khiron, other that Pylenor another Kentauros, when shot by Herakles fled wounded to this river [Anigros in Elis] and washed his hurt in it, and that it was the Hydra’s poison which gave the Anigros its nasty smell."
Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 4. 38. 1 (trans. Oldfather) (Greek historian C1st B.C.) :
"Herakles put on the shirt which had been anointed [by his wife Deianeira with the blood of Nessos infused with Hydra's venom], and as the strength of the toxic drug began slowly to work he met with the most terrible calamity. For the arrow’s barb had carried the poison of the adder [Hydra], and when the shirt for this reason, as it became heated, attacked the flesh of the body."
Quintus Smyrnaeus, Fall of Troy 9. 392 ff (trans. Way) (Greek epic C4th A.D.) :
"Beside his [Philoktetes] stony bed lay a long quiver full of arrows, some for hunting, some to smite his foes withal; with deadly venom of that fell water-snake [Hydra] were these besmeared. Before it, nigh to his hand, lay the great bow, with curving tips of horn, wrought by the mighty hands of Herakles."
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 30 (trans. Grant) (Roman mythographer C2nd A.D.) :
"Under Minerva’s [Athene’s] instructions he [Herakles] killed her [Hydra], disembowelled her, and dipped his arrows in her gall; and so whatever later he hit with his arrows did not escape death, and later he himself perished in Phrygia from the same cause."
Pseudo-Hyginus, Fabulae 34 :
"[Herakles] pierced Nessus with his arrows. As he died, Nessus, knowing how poisonous the arrows were, since they had been dipped in the gall of the Lernaean Hydra, drew out some of his blood and gave it to Dejanira, telling her it was a love-charm. If she wanted her husband not to desert her, she should have his garments smneared with this blood. Dejanira, believing him, kept it carefully preserved."
Ovid, Metamorphoses 9. 129 & 158 ff (trans. Melville) (Roman epic C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"An arrow flew [from the bow of Herakles] and pierced the fleeing centaur’s [Nessos’] back: out from his breast the barbed point stuck. He wrenched the shaft away, and blood from both wounds spurted, blood that bore Lernaei’s [Hydra’s] poison. Nessus caught it up. `I’ll not die unavenged’, he thought and gave his shirt soaked in warm gore to Deianira, a talisman, he said, to kindle love.’ . . . [Deianeira, the wife of Herakles, heard rumours that her husband was about to marry Iole] She chose to send the shirt imbued with Nessus’ blood to fortify her husband’s failing love. Not knowing what she gave, she entrusted her sorrow to Lichas (ignorant no less) and charged him with soft words to take it to her lord. And Hercules receiving the gift and on his shoulders wore, in ignorance, Echidna Lernaea’s [Hydra’s] poisoned gore. The flame was lit; he offered words of prayer and incense, pouring on the marble altar wine from the bowl. That deadly force grew warm. Freed by the flame, it seeped and stole along, spreading through all the limbs of Hercules. While he still could, that hero‘s heart of his stifled his groans, but when the agony triumphed beyond endurance, he threw down the altar, and his cries of anguish filled the glades of Oeta. Desperately he tried to tear the fatal shirt away; each tear tore his skin too, and, loathsome to relate, either it stuck, defeating his attempts to free it from his flesh, or else laid bare his lacerated muscles and huge bones. Why, as the poison burned, his very blood bubbled and hissed as when a white-hot blade is quenched in icy water. Never an end! The flames licked inwards, greedy for his guts; dark perspiration streamed from every pore; his scorching sinews crackled; the blind rot melted his marrow . . . In wounded agony he roamed the heights of Oeta [and died escaping pain in the flames of his funeral pyre]."
Ovid, Heroides 9. 115 ff (trans. Showerman) (Roman poetry C1st B.C. to C1st A.D.) :
"The darts [of Herakles] blackened with the venom of Lerna."
Seneca, Hercules Furens 44 (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) :
"Why, he [Herakles] bears as weapons what he once fought and overcame; he goes armed by lion [i.e. the skin of the Nemeian lion] and by Hydra [i.e. his arrows dipped in its venom]."
Seneca, Hercules Furens 1194 ff :
"[Herakles' mourns his sons, felled by his own arrows :] `What of that shaft, still dripping with the blood of boys? It has been dipped in Hydra’s gore--ah, now my own weapons do I recognize. No need to ask the hand that used them! Who could have bent the bow or what hand drawn the string which scarce yields to me?'"

HYDRA GUARDIAN OF HADES
Virgil, Aeneid 6. 287 ff (trans. Fairclough) (Roman epic C1st B.C.) :
"Many monstrous forms besides of various beasts are stalled at the doors [of Haides], Centauri and double-shaped Scyllae, and the hundredfold Briareus, and the beast of Lerna, hissing horribly, and the Chimaera armed with flame, Gorgones and Harpyiae, and the shape of the three-bodied shade [Geryon]."
Seneca, Hercules Furens 776 ff (trans. Miller) (Roman tragedy C1st A.D.) :
"The craft [of Kharon], ample for whole nations, sinks low beneath one man [Herakles, journeying to Haides] . . . Then the [shades of the] monsters he had conquered are in a panic, the fierce Centaurs and the Lapithae whom too much wine had inflamed to war; and, seeking the farthest fens of the Stygian swamp, Lerna’s labour plunges deep his fertile heads."
Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica 3. 224 (trans. Mozley) (Roman epic C1st A.D.) :
"[The Titan] Coeus in the lowest pit [of Tartaros] burst the adamantine bonds and trailing Jove’s [Zeus’[ fettering chains . . . conceives a hope of scaling heaven, yet though he repass the rivers and the gloom the hound of the Furiai [Kerberos] and the sprawling Hydra’s crest [the two guardians of Haides] repel him."
Statius, Silvae 2. 1. 228 ff (trans. Mozley) (Roman poetry C1st A.D.) :
"Neither the ferryman [Kharon] nor the comrade [the Hydra] of the cruel beast [Kerberos] bars the way [to the Underworld] to innocent souls."
Statius, Silvae 5. 3. 260 ff :
"But do ye, O monarchs of the dead and thou, Ennean Juno [Persephone], if ye approve my prayer [provide a peaceful journey for the soul of my dead father] . . . let the warder of the gate [Kerberos] make no fierce barking, let distant vales conceal the Centauri and Hydra’s multitude and Scylla’s monstrous horde [other monsters appointed guardians of Haides after their deaths]."
Greek                 Title Transliteration Latin Spelling
Εννεακεφαλος Enneakephalos      Enneacephalus.  
Translation
Nine-Headed
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Medieval Salamander by Evometheus6082
Medieval Salamander
Made for GFBBLU (meaning, ‘Group-For-Bookwyrms, Blue’) 
Made with blue and purple wonder-loom rubber-bands, pipe cleaners and yellow pom pom as eyes.

Description
 Small lizard, with stars or spots on it. Sometimes described as being in the shape of a man. 
 
Features They are cold, and impervious to fire- if placed in a fire, a salamander will put it out. (Salambeander is Greek for chimney-man) Very poisonous- if it wraps itself around a tree, all of the fruit will become poisoned. Asbestos was at first believed to be salamander wool.

Symbolizes The salamander is a symbol of enduring faith, or courage, that cannot be destroyed.
 
Described By: Pliny- "This animal is so intensely cold as to extinguish fire by its contact, in the same way that ice does.  It spits out a milky matter from its mouth, and whatever part of the human body is touched with this all the hairs fall off, and the part assumes the appearance of leprosy."

Isidore of Seville-  "The Salamander is so called because it is strong against fire; and amid all poisons its power is the greatest. For other {poisonous animals} strike individuals; this slays very many at the same time; for if it crawls up a tree, it infects all the fruit with poison and slays those who eat it...It fights against fires, and alone among living things, extinguishes them.  For it lives in the midst of flames without pain and without being consumed, and not only is it not burned, but it puts the fire out." (Brehaut, 1912)

General Attributes

The salmander is a cold animal. It can live unharmed in a fire, and its coldness will extinguish the hottest flames. If it enters hot water, the water will become cold.

From the salamander comes a material that is unlike any other cloth; when it becomes dirty, it must be thrown into a fire, which will consume the dirt without harming the cloth. This cloth is made in the deserts of India, and is worn by important people. This is a good description of asbestos, which some sources link with the salamander.

The salmander's poison is very strong, and can kill many at once. If it climbs an apple tree, the apples become poisonous; if it enters a well, the water becomes deadly.


Allegory/Moral

The salamander represents righteous people, who can withstand fire, just as Daniel could emerge unharmed from the fiery furnace.


Sources (chronological order)

Pliny the Elder [1st century CE] (Natural History, Book 10, 86): The salamander is a shaped like alizard, but is covered with spots. A salamander is so cold that it puts out fire on contact. It vomits from its mouth a milky liquid; if this liquid touches any part of the human body it causes all the hair to fall off, and the skin to change color and break out in a rash. Salamanders only appear when it rains and disappear in fine weather. (Book 11, 116): It is fatal to drink water or wine when a salamander has died in it, as is drinking from a vessel from which the creature has drunk.

Augustine [5th century CE] (City of God, Book 21, chapter 4): If the salamander lives in fire, as naturalists have recorded, this is a sufficiently convincing example that everything which burns is not consumed, as the souls in hell are not.

Isidore of Seville [7th century CE] (Etymologies, Book 12, 4:36): The salamander alone of animals puts out fires; it can live in fire without pain and without being burned. Of all the venomous animals its strength is the greatest because it kills many at once. If it crawls into a tree it poisons all of the fruit, and anyone who eats the fruit will die; if it falls in a well it poisons the water so that any who drink it die.


Illustration

The salamander commonly is illustrated as a lizard in or moving through a fire. The effect of the salamander's poison is also commonly illustrated. Kongelige Bibliotek, Gl. kgl. S. 1633 4º (f. 55v) shows a large salamander, with its tail in a fire, poisoning an apple tree; a dying man, holding an apple, lies on the ground below. Museum Meermanno, MMW, 10 B 25 (f. 43r) shows the salamander as a snake spiraling up an apple tree; the snake has an apple in its mouth, making the scene very similar to some manuscript illustrations of the temptation of Eve. A man holding an apple stands near the tree, a hand to his head and looking sick.

 

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THIS weekend in downtown Houston I am selling my craft animals to the public and I hope to make lots of money wish me luck look up 
Amazing Houston Comic Con for more information.
See ya

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Evometheus6082
Zach moss
Artist | Hobbyist | Artisan Crafts
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Born in 4/29/1994 in Berlin Germany. I like to take pictures of animals and mushrooms for project Noah and to make pipe-cleaner lifeforms and have higher functioning autism.
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